Agra is believed to be the dwelling places of Aryans. A rich civilization flourished in the city somewhat close to 2nd century B.C. It has been referred as 'Arya Griha' or the abode of Aryans. The earliest accounts of Agra can be found in the epic Mahabharata. The city has been referred as 'Agravana' which used to be a part of Surasena Empire. History seems to have lost it untill its rediscovery by the Mughals. The first concrete evidence of Agra can be found in the poems of Khwaja Masud bid sad bin Salman. According to the poet Mahmud Shah the governor of Hind (presumably parts of the Punjab and the North-west region) invaded the Fort of Agra in 1080-81.
Very few records confirm to the establishment of a fort before the arrival of Mughals. Agra was specifically mentioned in the reign of Syed Allauddin (1445-51) as a dependency of Biana. The narration of Niamatullah contradict the fact and according to his accounts the city was built by Emperor Sikander of Lodhi which had no prior existence. Ibrahim Lodhi, the last Sultan was killed and the empire terminated in 1526 A.D. It was here in 1530 A.D. that Babur breathed his last and Humayun was crowned. The city was soon developed and made the commanding centre. Humayun was defeated by the Afghan ruler Sher Shah. However, in the second battle of Panipat that is in 1556 A.D. Iskander Khan defeated the Afghan ruler Hemu on Akbar's behalf and mughals claimed the city. During Akbar's period the developments in and around Agra reach its zenith. This was followed by his successors Jehangir and Shah Jahan. In 1658 Aurangzeb took the throne and shifted his capital to Delhi leaving behind glamorous history of Agra.